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Mining — Bitcoin
Generation of Coinbase Transaction
Hello Again, I'm researching solo mining, but I need help in finding information on how the Coinbase Transaction is Generated: It should be explained within the 'getblocktemplate' page on the Bitcoin Wiki (https://en.bitcoin.it), but this only explains how to build a coinbase transaction with the help of "coinbasetxn"; and it's my understanding that "coinbasetxn" is only supported within Mining Pools, not the Bitcoin Wallet - remember, I'm researching solo mining. What's also making things complicated is "Segregated Witness" (Segwit): With Segwit, all transactions now have a 'txid' and a 'hash'; sometimes, the 'txid' and 'hash' will match, but most of the time (including in some Coinbase Transactions) they don't. And I can't find anything online on how to generate a Coinbase Transaction while accounting for Segwit. Can anyone find an example algorithm that can build a Coinbase Transaction in a solo mining environment while also accounting for Segwit? You can share it in any code you like, but I'd prefer Python.
Developer Update - New BiblePay Miner (Stratum Compatible) In Progress
" So if you are all wondering what the devs are working on -- I'm working on a new BiblePay miner. Just to explain the situation a little more, a year ago when people asked me about possibly separating the miner program from the core wallet, I didnt really like the idea because I felt we would be on track for continually modifying the mining algo to be impossible to run outside the core. However, I feel that our POBH algorithm has matured to the point where its no longer changing - so as to reduce the risk of someone trying to port it to GPU or ASIC, I feel this is a good time for us to make the move - to make a standalone miner - and give any new devs out there the chance to enhance POBH. This will also allow us to add stratum support and standardize our pool to be p2p/stratum compatible. The bbp-miner.exe must be outside of the wallet primarily to fulfill the stratum protocol request (as putting stratum inside the core wallet violates the code of conduct for exchanges). So, I decided to go ahead and start creating a bbp-miner.exe, and at the very least we will test its performance with solo mining. Then if it offers an edge over the core wallet, we will then look into making our pool(s) stratum compatible and standardizing the miner to be a code-branch, the pool to be a branch of p2pool, etc, to be compatible with the bitcoin and dash specs in the latest evo code base (for future maintenance). This part is also important so that we can attract more blockchain devs to the project and to allow us to clean up legacy code and be more fast/lean. So far, I have ported the KJV bible into bbp-miner.exe, a cross-platform C program, using the AES256, base64, SHA256, X11, MD5 and our getblocktemplate rules. The miner will work on all platforms, of course. I'll let you all know as soon as a I have a working solo miner, so we can test it. If its performance is worthy, then we will move on to making the pool compatible with dash and bitcoin, etc (with p2pool) and stratum. " - Rob, Founder and Lead Developer Reference: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2388064.msg52681896#msg52681896
Bitcoin Core 0.9.5 released | Wladimir J. van der Laan | May 24 2015
Wladimir J. van der Laan on May 24 2015: Bitcoin Core version 0.9.5 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.9.5/ This is a new minor version release, with the goal of backporting BIP66. There are also a few bug fixes and updated translations. Upgrading to this release is recommended. Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues How to Upgrade If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). Notable changes Mining and relay policy enhancements Bitcoin Core's block templates are now for version 3 blocks only, and any mining software relying on its getblocktemplate must be updated in parallel to use libblkmaker either version 0.4.2 or any version from 0.5.1 onward. If you are solo mining, this will affect you the moment you upgrade Bitcoin Core, which must be done prior to BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. If you are mining with the stratum mining protocol: this does not affect you. If you are mining with the getblocktemplate protocol to a pool: this will affect you at the pool operator's discretion, which must be no later than BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. 0.9.5 changelog
74f29c2 Check pindexBestForkBase for null
9cd1dd9 Fix priority calculation in CreateTransaction
6b4163b Sanitize command strings before logging them.
3230b32 Raise version of created blocks, and enforce DERSIG in mempool
989d499 Backport of some of BIP66's tests
ab03660 Implement BIP 66 validation rules and switchover logic
8438074 build: fix dynamic boost check when --with-boost= is used
Credits Thanks to who contributed to this release, at least:
Bitcoin Core 0.10.0 released | Wladimir | Feb 16 2015
Wladimir on Feb 16 2015: Bitcoin Core version 0.10.0 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/ This is a new major version release, bringing both new features and bug fixes. Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues The whole distribution is also available as torrent: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/bitcoin-0.10.0.torrent magnet:?xt=urn:btih:170c61fe09dafecfbb97cb4dccd32173383f4e68&dn;=0.10.0&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337&ws;=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2F Upgrading and downgrading How to Upgrade If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). Downgrading warning Because release 0.10.0 makes use of headers-first synchronization and parallel block download (see further), the block files and databases are not backwards-compatible with older versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work anymore as a result of this.
The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support. If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex. This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility. Notable changes Faster synchronization Bitcoin Core now uses 'headers-first synchronization'. This means that we first ask peers for block headers (a total of 27 megabytes, as of December 2014) and validate those. In a second stage, when the headers have been discovered, we download the blocks. However, as we already know about the whole chain in advance, the blocks can be downloaded in parallel from all available peers. In practice, this means a much faster and more robust synchronization. On recent hardware with a decent network link, it can be as little as 3 hours for an initial full synchronization. You may notice a slower progress in the very first few minutes, when headers are still being fetched and verified, but it should gain speed afterwards. A few RPCs were added/updated as a result of this:
getblockchaininfo now returns the number of validated headers in addition to
the number of validated blocks.
getpeerinfo lists both the number of blocks and headers we know we have in
common with each peer. While synchronizing, the heights of the blocks that we have requested from peers (but haven't received yet) are also listed as 'inflight'.
A new RPC getchaintips lists all known branches of the block chain,
including those we only have headers for. Transaction fee changes This release automatically estimates how high a transaction fee (or how high a priority) transactions require to be confirmed quickly. The default settings will create transactions that confirm quickly; see the new 'txconfirmtarget' setting to control the tradeoff between fees and confirmation times. Fees are added by default unless the 'sendfreetransactions' setting is enabled. Prior releases used hard-coded fees (and priorities), and would sometimes create transactions that took a very long time to confirm. Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities are saved in the data directory in the fee_estimates.dat file just before program shutdown, and are read in at startup. New command line options for transaction fee changes:
-txconfirmtarget=n : create transactions that have enough fees (or priority)
so they are likely to begin confirmation within n blocks (default: 1). This setting is over-ridden by the -paytxfee option.
-sendfreetransactions : Send transactions as zero-fee transactions if possible
(default: 0) New RPC commands for fee estimation:
estimatefee nblocks : Returns approximate fee-per-1,000-bytes needed for
a transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate.
estimatepriority nblocks : Returns approximate priority needed for
a zero-fee transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough free transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate. RPC access control changes Subnet matching for the purpose of access control is now done by matching the binary network address, instead of with string wildcard matching. For the user this means that -rpcallowip takes a subnet specification, which can be
a single IP address (e.g. 126.96.36.199 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde)
a network/CIDR (e.g. 188.8.131.52/24 or fe80::0000/64)
a network/netmask (e.g. 184.108.40.206/255.255.255.0 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff)
An arbitrary number of -rpcallow arguments can be given. An incoming connection will be accepted if its origin address matches one of them. For example: | 0.9.x and before | 0.10.x | |--------------------------------------------|---------------------------------------| | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 (unchanged) | | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.0/24 | | -rpcallowip=192.168.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.0.0/16 | | -rpcallowip=* (dangerous!) | -rpcallowip=::/0 (still dangerous!) | Using wildcards will result in the rule being rejected with the following error in debug.log:
Error: Invalid -rpcallowip subnet specification: *. Valid are a single IP (e.g. 220.127.116.11), a network/netmask (e.g. 18.104.22.168/255.255.255.0) or a network/CIDR (e.g. 22.214.171.124/24).
REST interface A new HTTP API is exposed when running with the -rest flag, which allows unauthenticated access to public node data. It is served on the same port as RPC, but does not need a password, and uses plain HTTP instead of JSON-RPC. Assuming a local RPC server running on port 8332, it is possible to request:
In every case, EXT can be bin (for raw binary data), hex (for hex-encoded binary) or json. For more details, see the doc/REST-interface.md document in the repository. RPC Server "Warm-Up" Mode The RPC server is started earlier now, before most of the expensive intialisations like loading the block index. It is available now almost immediately after starting the process. However, until all initialisations are done, it always returns an immediate error with code -28 to all calls. This new behaviour can be useful for clients to know that a server is already started and will be available soon (for instance, so that they do not have to start it themselves). Improved signing security For 0.10 the security of signing against unusual attacks has been improved by making the signatures constant time and deterministic. This change is a result of switching signing to use libsecp256k1 instead of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 is a cryptographic library optimized for the curve Bitcoin uses which was created by Bitcoin Core developer Pieter Wuille. There exist attacks against most ECC implementations where an attacker on shared virtual machine hardware could extract a private key if they could cause a target to sign using the same key hundreds of times. While using shared hosts and reusing keys are inadvisable for other reasons, it's a better practice to avoid the exposure. OpenSSL has code in their source repository for derandomization and reduction in timing leaks that we've eagerly wanted to use for a long time, but this functionality has still not made its way into a released version of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 achieves significantly stronger protection: As far as we're aware this is the only deployed implementation of constant time signing for the curve Bitcoin uses and we have reason to believe that libsecp256k1 is better tested and more thoroughly reviewed than the implementation in OpenSSL.  https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/161.pdf Watch-only wallet support The wallet can now track transactions to and from wallets for which you know all addresses (or scripts), even without the private keys. This can be used to track payments without needing the private keys online on a possibly vulnerable system. In addition, it can help for (manual) construction of multisig transactions where you are only one of the signers. One new RPC, importaddress, is added which functions similarly to importprivkey, but instead takes an address or script (in hexadecimal) as argument. After using it, outputs credited to this address or script are considered to be received, and transactions consuming these outputs will be considered to be sent. The following RPCs have optional support for watch-only: getbalance, listreceivedbyaddress, listreceivedbyaccount, listtransactions, listaccounts, listsinceblock, gettransaction. See the RPC documentation for those methods for more information. Compared to using getrawtransaction, this mechanism does not require -txindex, scales better, integrates better with the wallet, and is compatible with future block chain pruning functionality. It does mean that all relevant addresses need to added to the wallet before the payment, though. Consensus library Starting from 0.10.0, the Bitcoin Core distribution includes a consensus library. The purpose of this library is to make the verification functionality that is critical to Bitcoin's consensus available to other applications, e.g. to language bindings such as [python-bitcoinlib](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/python-bitcoinlib) or alternative node implementations. This library is called libbitcoinconsensus.so (or, .dll for Windows). Its interface is defined in the C header [bitcoinconsensus.h](https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/0.10/src/script/bitcoinconsensus.h). In its initial version the API includes two functions:
bitcoinconsensus_verify_script verifies a script. It returns whether the indicated input of the provided serialized transaction
correctly spends the passed scriptPubKey under additional constraints indicated by flags
bitcoinconsensus_version returns the API version, currently at an experimental 0
The functionality is planned to be extended to e.g. UTXO management in upcoming releases, but the interface for existing methods should remain stable. Standard script rules relaxed for P2SH addresses The IsStandard() rules have been almost completely removed for P2SH redemption scripts, allowing applications to make use of any valid script type, such as "n-of-m OR y", hash-locked oracle addresses, etc. While the Bitcoin protocol has always supported these types of script, actually using them on mainnet has been previously inconvenient as standard Bitcoin Core nodes wouldn't relay them to miners, nor would most miners include them in blocks they mined. bitcoin-tx It has been observed that many of the RPC functions offered by bitcoind are "pure functions", and operate independently of the bitcoind wallet. This included many of the RPC "raw transaction" API functions, such as createrawtransaction. bitcoin-tx is a newly introduced command line utility designed to enable easy manipulation of bitcoin transactions. A summary of its operation may be obtained via "bitcoin-tx --help" Transactions may be created or signed in a manner similar to the RPC raw tx API. Transactions may be updated, deleting inputs or outputs, or appending new inputs and outputs. Custom scripts may be easily composed using a simple text notation, borrowed from the bitcoin test suite. This tool may be used for experimenting with new transaction types, signing multi-party transactions, and many other uses. Long term, the goal is to deprecate and remove "pure function" RPC API calls, as those do not require a server round-trip to execute. Other utilities "bitcoin-key" and "bitcoin-script" have been proposed, making key and script operations easily accessible via command line. Mining and relay policy enhancements Bitcoin Core's block templates are now for version 3 blocks only, and any mining software relying on its getblocktemplate must be updated in parallel to use libblkmaker either version 0.4.2 or any version from 0.5.1 onward. If you are solo mining, this will affect you the moment you upgrade Bitcoin Core, which must be done prior to BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. If you are mining with the stratum mining protocol: this does not affect you. If you are mining with the getblocktemplate protocol to a pool: this will affect you at the pool operator's discretion, which must be no later than BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. The prioritisetransaction RPC method has been added to enable miners to manipulate the priority of transactions on an individual basis. Bitcoin Core now supports BIP 22 long polling, so mining software can be notified immediately of new templates rather than having to poll periodically. Support for BIP 23 block proposals is now available in Bitcoin Core's getblocktemplate method. This enables miners to check the basic validity of their next block before expending work on it, reducing risks of accidental hardforks or mining invalid blocks. Two new options to control mining policy:
-datacarrier=0/1 : Relay and mine "data carrier" (OP_RETURN) transactions
if this is 1.
-datacarriersize=n : Maximum size, in bytes, we consider acceptable for
"data carrier" outputs. The relay policy has changed to more properly implement the desired behavior of not relaying free (or very low fee) transactions unless they have a priority above the AllowFreeThreshold(), in which case they are relayed subject to the rate limiter. BIP 66: strict DER encoding for signatures Bitcoin Core 0.10 implements BIP 66, which introduces block version 3, and a new consensus rule, which prohibits non-DER signatures. Such transactions have been non-standard since Bitcoin v0.8.0 (released in February 2013), but were technically still permitted inside blocks. This change breaks the dependency on OpenSSL's signature parsing, and is required if implementations would want to remove all of OpenSSL from the consensus code. The same miner-voting mechanism as in BIP 34 is used: when 751 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, the new consensus rule becomes active for those blocks. When 951 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, it becomes mandatory for all blocks. Backward compatibility with current mining software is NOT provided, thus miners should read the first paragraph of "Mining and relay policy enhancements" above. 0.10.0 Change log Detailed release notes follow. This overview includes changes that affect external behavior, not code moves, refactors or string updates. RPC:
f923c07 Support IPv6 lookup in bitcoin-cli even when IPv6 only bound on localhost
b641c9c Fix addnode "onetry": Connect with OpenNetworkConnection
I'm trying to understand how mining works. For learning purpose I'm using Bitcoin Core as solo mining pool. Getblocktemplate will return data that is enough to start mining witch is simple founding correct nonce. But what is next step? I found in bitcoin core method submitblock that have one argument / block data. Getblocktemplate is the new decentralized Bitcoin mining protocol, openly developed by the Bitcoin community over mid 2012. It supercedes the old getwork mining protocol. getblocktemplate is the new decentralized Bitcoin mining protocol, openly developed by the Bitcoin community over mid 2012. It supercedes the old getwork mining protocol. getblocktemplate RPC¶. An improved method is the Bitcoin Core “getblocktemplate” RPC.This provides the mining software with much more information: The information necessary to construct a coinbase transaction paying the pool or the solo miner’s bitcoind wallet.. A complete dump of the transactions bitcoind or the mining pool suggests including in the block, allowing the mining software ... So to solo mine any other Altcoin all you have to do is apply the same procedure. We’ll show you how to GPU solo mine but the same applies to CPU as well as ASICs. Also in this guide there are two methods involved 1. Solo mining using same computer where the wallet runs 2. Solo mining using mining rig where you don’t have your wallet setup.
Beginner's guide to solo bitcoin and litecoin mining ...
How to mine bitcoins? What is Cryptomining? solo mining -pool Mining EXPLAINED! #AXT - Duration: 8:22. Axis Technology 1,675 views. 8:22. Newbie guide for those who want to try solo bitcoin and litecoin mining, using bfgminer and cgminer. The config files shown in the video are available in the... *****UPDATE***** Solo mining has been removed from client. I'll keep the video up for how it used to work, it might still work for some alt coins (unsure) yo... Live Bitcoin Trading With DeriBot on Deribit DeriBot Backup 272 watching. Live now; Solo Mining Dogecoin - Step by Step Guide for Beginners - Duration: 6:38. Scratchy Cards 55,722 views. What it really takes to mine a Bitcoin in 10 Minutes. Firstly I'll show you a special free method to mine Bitcoin and send funds directly to your wallet in 1...