Bitcoin, its Nodes and the Main Principles of its Network ...
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Bitcoin ABC 0.18.8 released!
Bitcoin ABC version 0.18.8 is now available from: https://download.bitcoinabc.org/0.18.8/ This release includes the following features and fixes: - dumpwallet now includes hex-encoded scripts from the wallet in the dumpfile - importwallet now imports these scripts, but corresponding addresses may not be added correctly or a manual rescan may be required to find relevant· transactions - getblock 2 (verbosity = 2) now returns hex values in transaction JSON blobs - Remove miner policy estimator in favor of minimum fees, also remove fee_estimates.dat. Old copies will be left in place. - The log timestamp format is now ISO 8601 (e.g. "2019-01-28T15:41:17Z") - Behavior change: in case of multiple values for an argument, the following rules apply: - From the command line, the last value takes precedence - From the config file, the first value takes precedence - From the config file, if an argument is negated it takes precedent over all the previous occurences of this argument (e.g. "foo=2 \n nofoo=1" will set foo=0) - The configuration files now support assigning options to a specific network. To do so, sections or prefix can be used: main.uacomment=bch-mainnet test.uacomment=bch-testnet regtest.uacomment=bch-regtest [main] mempoolsize=300 [test] mempoolsize=200 [regtest] mempoolsize=50 The addnode=, connect=, port=, bind=, rpcport=, rpcbind= and wallet= options will only apply to mainnet when specified in the configuration file, unless a network is specified.
PSA: If you want to run a "full" node but don't have much disk space
...simply delete the old blk0***.dat files from your blocks directory after bitcoin-qt is done indexing them. (or rename them if you want to test without having to redownload the blockchain) This will work perfectly fine if you are not doing anything obscure. If a peer tries to load a block from you which you deleted your node will simply ignore the request. (see this private testnet test) However, it will crash if you open the development console and use the getblock command to retrieve a deleted block, so don't do that. Cases I have not tested yet:
importprivkey (should work)
rescanning (should work as it doesn't require a reindex)
reindexing (this one definitely won't work)
For technical reasons I can't try a -rescan now, can anyone check what happens in such a case so we can fix any bugs that might have been overseen? worst case scenario: it will crash and you'll have to restore the deleted/renamed blocks. Edit: not sure if this works for p2pool mining as without the blocks and without full txindex you can't verify the transaction chains. is this necessary or does this only matter to p2pool operators, not miners? Edit2:miners don't need the blockchain, deleting (or renaming..) blocks will work fine :) (just remember to let it finish indexing a blk file before you delete it) Edit3: I think the confusion stems from the fact that 387943 thought the merkle tree was stored in the blk*.dat files :D duh, i knew nobody could be seriously this retarded. btw, BTCisGod is a real bitcoiner, he was just asking legit questions so don't hate him. he's not connected to the insane number.
[Informational] [CC0] Plug In To The Bitcoin Network
Bitcoin Peer to Peer Network Protocol
The Bitcoin network is designed to operate in a peer to peer configuration, in a reflection of the overall decentralized design of the system. The network goal is to sync the Blockchain, the transaction record and payment settlement system through which Bitcoins are minted and exchanged with Bitcoin users. A high level view of the network is that of a wide array of individual peers, each helping to broadcast updated Blockchain information across the entire group. The broadcast sync of the Blockchain and the network setup and operational action are accomplished through a narrow network protocol, consisting of a small set of messages. Most messages are designed with pushing data in mind, to continue to propagate waves of updated Blockchain and peer data to local peers and across the greater network.
All Bitcoin network communication occurs using TCP, the standard Internet protocol for reliable networking. Bitcoin has supported the IPv6 standard since September of 2012, and can be used over a user selected port, with the default being 8333. When a Bitcoin node is instantiated for the first time, it needs to find a way to connect to the greater network. At the start of the project, new nodes would automatically connect to a hard-coded IRC server, with IRC channels being used to publish and discover IP addresses of network nodes. This bootstrapping process was created in 2011, complementing the IRC system it would ultimately wholly replace. In this system hard-coded DNS address based seeds are resolved to the IP addresses of seed nodes to direct a new node onto the network. Since 2012 Bitcoin Core developers Luke-Jr and Pieter Wuille have operated seed nodes, along with various others over the years. When connecting to a node IP, a Bitcoin node will send its version as the initial message, in a handshaking process where information about its makeup including its current clock value is published to the remote node. The specific messages used are version, which sends the node information, and verack, which acknowledges the receipt of the version information. This handshake helps a node define a normalized network clock value: time calculations a node makes are based not off of its own clock, but rather the median time from all successfully connected peers. After the initial bootstrapped connection onto the network, previously connected-to peers as well as relayed known local active peer information is cached. Nodes are designed to recall other nodes in an archival list. This list of node IPs is cached in order to bypass the node seed stage on subsequent starts. On each network join, a node will consult its cache of nodes, semi-randomly selecting nodes to attempt to connect to, with a prioritization of most recently active.
Once nodes have successfully joined the network, they are then faced with their primary task of syncing the Blockchain. The workhorse message that helps a node accomplish this task is the inventory or more precisely inv message, which a node uses to push listings of blocks and transactions to connected peers. Inventory messages are simply concise high level identification information, they do not carry any information beyond a listing of blocks and transactions. These messages are published constantly, as novel blocks and transactions are validated and then pushed to other peers to relay the new information. Specific inventory messages may be requested directly from a connected peer using the getblocks message that queries about a specific set of blocks. This message is used to sync nodes that are out of date, such as nodes that are new to the network and must sync the entire blockchain through a long series of getblocks requests. When an inventory message is received, listed inventory of blocks and transactions may be requested through the getdata request. This is generally performed when a node receives an inventory message containing novel block or transaction information. In response to the getdata response the node returns with a block or tx message, sending blocks and transactions respectively.
Syncing to Light Clients
Full nodes may also service the syncing needs of light clients, which some call SPV clients after a general proposal made by Satoshi in the original Bitcoin whitepaper. These clients avoid validating the blockchain to provide a more practical user experience at the cost of incurring counter-party risk of an abusive miner or set of miners. Filter message features so that full node could service requests for light clients were added through BIP 37. Light clients uses the getheaders message to request that full nodes return Blockchain headers information which are sent using the headers message. The chain of Blockchain headers are used to piece together the chain with the greatest proof of work. This is used to verify transactions as being on the longest chain of blocks, with the important caveat that it may be an invalid chain. Light clients also use bloom messages to request transactions that they care about, they do not ask directly for transactions in an effort to add some slight privacy to the client's financial status, however these efforts have only a small impact and are not comprehensive.
In addition to syncing the Blockchain, the Bitcoin network syncs information about the IP addresses that comprise the network, to provide for sustainable connectivity. Nodes publish to other nodes the set of active peers they know about using the addr message, which can contain a list of up to a thousand known active nodes. Nodes can also ask other nodes for an addr message using a getaddr message. Every twenty four hours every node will broadcast a heartbeat addr message, which is passed along to two connected nodes. General network connectivity may also be tested by a node using the ping message, which does nothing other than attempt a connection to verify connectivity.
In the original Bitcoin protocol, support was present for an IP based sending system. The concept allowed connecting to a node directly to make a transaction. To accomplish that task nodes used messages that were later deprecated and removed. IP based sending was eliminated very early on due to security, privacy, and practicality issues. Although the Bitcoin network was designed as a group of headless automatons, early in its life various critical defects were found that required aggressive central action to remedy. As a practical solution to facilitate the rapid deployment of requisite fixes, Satoshi Nakamoto devised an alerting system for sending version update messages across the node network. This system used a protocol message called alert to directly broadcast a signed message from Satoshi, to be shown to users to inform them of critical information. To avoid a singular dependency Satoshi shared the signing key with others, which over time became an unnecessary risk to the network. In April of 2016 the release of Bitcoin Core version 0.12.1 eliminated the alert system.
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), uninstall all earlier versions of Bitcoin, then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). If you are upgrading from version 0.7.2 or earlier, the first time you run 0.9.0 your blockchain files will be re-indexed, which will take anywhere from 30 minutes to several hours, depending on the speed of your machine. On Windows, do not forget to uninstall all earlier versions of the Bitcoin client first, especially if you are switching to the 64-bit version.
Windows 64-bit installer
New in 0.9.0 is the Windows 64-bit version of the client. There have been frequent reports of users running out of virtual memory on 32-bit systems during the initial sync. Because of this it is recommended to install the 64-bit version if your system supports it. NOTE: Release candidate 2 Windows binaries are not code-signed; use PGP and the SHA256SUMS.asc file to make sure your binaries are correct. In the final 0.9.0 release, Windows setup.exe binaries will be code-signed.
The 'chainstate' for this release is not always compatible with previous releases, so if you run 0.9 and then decide to switch back to a 0.8.x release you might get a blockchain validation error when starting the old release (due to 'pruned outputs' being omitted from the index of unspent transaction outputs). Running the old release with the -reindex option will rebuild the chainstate data structures and correct the problem. Also, the first time you run a 0.8.x release on a 0.9 wallet it will rescan the blockchain for missing spent coins, which will take a long time (tens of minutes on a typical machine).
Rebranding to Bitcoin Core
To reduce confusion between Bitcoin-the-network and Bitcoin-the-software we have renamed the reference client to Bitcoin Core.
Autotools build system
For 0.9.0 we switched to an autotools-based build system instead of individual (q)makefiles. Using the standard "./autogen.sh; ./configure; make" to build Bitcoin-Qt and bitcoind makes it easier for experienced open source developers to contribute to the project. Be sure to check doc/build-*.md for your platform before building from source.
Another change in the 0.9 release is moving away from the bitcoind executable functioning both as a server and as a RPC client. The RPC client functionality ("tell the running bitcoin daemon to do THIS") was split into a separate executable, 'bitcoin-cli'. The RPC client code will eventually be removed from bitcoind, but will be kept for backwards compatibility for a release or two.
The behavior of the walletpassphrase RPC when the wallet is already unlocked has changed between 0.8 and 0.9. The 0.8 behavior of walletpassphrase is to fail when the wallet is already unlocked:
> walletpassphrase 1000 walletunlocktime = now + 1000 > walletpassphrase 10 Error: Wallet is already unlocked (old unlock time stays)
The new behavior of walletpassphrase is to set a new unlock time overriding the old one:
> walletpassphrase 1000 walletunlocktime = now + 1000 > walletpassphrase 10 walletunlocktime = now + 10 (overriding the old unlock time)
Transaction malleability-related fixes
This release contains a few fixes for transaction ID (TXID) malleability issues:
-nospendzeroconfchange command-line option, to avoid spending zero-confirmation change
IsStandard() transaction rules tightened to prevent relaying and mining of mutated transactions
Additional information in listtransactions/gettransaction output to report wallet transactions that conflict with each other because they spend the same outputs.
Bug fixes to the getbalance/listaccounts RPC commands, which would report incorrect balances for double-spent (or mutated) transactions.
New option: -zapwallettxes to rebuild the wallet's transaction information
This release drops the default fee required to relay transactions across the network and for miners to consider the transaction in their blocks to 0.01mBTC per kilobyte. Note that getting a transaction relayed across the network does NOT guarantee that the transaction will be accepted by a miner; by default, miners fill their blocks with 50 kilobytes of high-priority transactions, and then with 700 kilobytes of the highest-fee-per-kilobyte transactions. The minimum relay/mining fee-per-kilobyte may be changed with the minrelaytxfee option. Note that previous releases incorrectly used the mintxfee setting to determine which low-priority transactions should be considered for inclusion in blocks. The wallet code still uses a default fee for low-priority transactions of 0.1mBTC per kilobyte. During periods of heavy transaction volume, even this fee may not be enough to get transactions confirmed quickly; the mintxfee option may be used to override the default.
0.9.0 Release notes
New notion of 'conflicted' transactions, reported as confirmations: -1
'listreceivedbyaddress' now provides tx ids
Add raw transaction hex to 'gettransaction' output
Updated help and tests for 'getreceivedby(account|address)'
In 'getblock', accept 2nd 'verbose' parameter, similar to getrawtransaction, but defaulting to 1 for backward compatibility
Add 'verifychain', to verify chain database at runtime
Add 'dumpwallet' and 'importwallet' RPCs
'keypoolrefill' gains optional size parameter
Add 'getbestblockhash', to return tip of best chain
Add 'chainwork' (the total work done by all blocks since the genesis block) to 'getblock' output
Make RPC password resistant to timing attacks
Clarify help messages and add examples
Add 'getrawchangeaddress' call for raw transaction change destinations
Reject insanely high fees by default in 'sendrawtransaction'
Add RPC call 'decodescript' to decode a hex-encoded transaction script
Make 'validateaddress' provide redeemScript
Add 'getnetworkhashps' to get the calculated network hashrate
New RPC 'ping' command to request ping, new 'pingtime' and 'pingwait' fields in 'getpeerinfo' output
Adding new 'addrlocal' field to 'getpeerinfo' output
Add verbose boolean to 'getrawmempool'
Add rpc command 'getunconfirmedbalance' to obtain total unconfirmed balance
Explicitly ensure that wallet is unlocked in importprivkey
Add check for valid keys in importprivkey
New option: -nospendzeroconfchange to never spend unconfirmed change outputs
New option: -zapwallettxes to rebuild the wallet's transaction information
Rename option '-tor' to '-onion' to better reflect what it does
Add '-disablewallet' mode to let bitcoind run entirely without wallet (when built with wallet)
Update default '-rpcsslciphers' to include TLSv1.2
make '-logtimestamps' default on and rework help-message
RPC client option: '-rpcwait', to wait for server start
Allow -noserver with bitcoind
Block-chain handling and storage:
Update leveldb to 1.15
Check for correct genesis (prevent cases where a datadir from the wrong network is accidentally loaded)
Allow txindex to be removed and add a reindex dialog
Log aborted block database rebuilds
Store orphan blocks in serialized form, to save memory
Limit the number of orphan blocks in memory to 750
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